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全球LED供需失衡将缩小 2018年差距缩至8%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 网上办理建设用地规划许可证 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

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The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

"How many patients do Chinese doctors see a day? It can be more than 50," he told China Daily. "How can we have the time and energy to do research or publish papers?"
至少在城市大部分人能去上班是不可能的,这将影响多个行业,包括金融、广告、医疗保健和艺术。近两天城市的交通线路、桥梁、隧道都瘫痪了,在最新的报告中,地铁到下周可能会正常运作。
Premiered on Jan 29, the drama received 7 points out of 10 on the country's popular review website Douban.
plane
Sam Smith, 'The Thrill of It All'
报告提供了对除北京和上海之外的28个国内商业和行政中心城市进行的深入考察。
Yes, even if real GDP growth does not. Speculation over the true GDP growth rate in China, as opposed to the official one, has spawned a cottage industry of specialist economists. The official figures are deceptively stable and serene thanks to suspected “smoothing” by the Chinese authorities, as they bend the figures to fit growth targets. So even if growth does stumble in 2018, the official growth rate is almost certain to come in above the preordained 6.5 per cent.

The girl, said to be from Shanghai, paid the man between 1,900 and 9,500 yuan every day over a two-month period through online payments using her mother's mobile phone and debit card.
艾瑞咨询集团和中国最火的微博平台——新浪微博在上海的一个论坛上发布了该报道。该论坛由微博和通信巨头华为联合举办。
Stop me if you've heard this one before: An untested social media company with no revenue gets a mind-blowing offer. Against all advice, the cocky, twentysomething CEO refuses to sell. Meanwhile, competitors come out of the woodwork with lawsuits claiming their ideas were ripped off.
adj. 有效的,有影响的
比利时和乌拉圭这两个袖珍之国因为包容性最大限度地增强了自己的实力,巴西、阿根廷、西班牙和德国这四个本届杯赛的夺冠大热门肯定会对他们特别小心。他们将会是有力的提醒,告诉世界小国家通常也能一击致命,就像巴西本土的小动物蚊子和蝎子一样。

Footnotes

  • 杭州二手房年度报告:本地挂牌人占比近九成
  • You know the old guy who's been at the company forever and still can't figure out email? If you don't get up to speed on social media in 2014, you'll be that guy. Compared to last year, there are 13 times as many jobs advertised on Indeed.com that mention the use of social media. "We are seeing an increased demand for social savvy candidates across the business -- from human resources to product to customer service, " Amy Crow, Indeed's communication director told Quartz earlier this year. Not only are departments like marketing, sales, and customer service expected to be on Twitter (TWTR) and Facebook, teams as diverse as R&D, logistics, and HR are increasingly using internal networks like Yammer to streamline operations. Social media has grown so critical to the workplace, in fact, that major universities are beginning to offer certificate programs for socially inept corporate types to get up to speed.

但我预计其他银行将效仿此举。在不涨薪的前提下,任何让优秀员工保持活力和积极性的办法都值得考虑。
n. 基础,根据,建立
全世界的目光都在聚焦巴西,因为这个国度将举办最令人期待的两大体育盛事——2014年世界杯足球赛和2016年夏季奥运会。在巴西,你不仅可以观看精彩赛事,为你最喜欢的队伍及运动员欢呼,还可以前往“地球之肺”——亚马逊雨林旅行,体验“与世隔绝,拥抱自然”。不管你如何安排行程,巴西之行必定是一次难忘之旅。
她说,“在未来12到24个月,除非这些瓶颈得到解决,否则西得克萨斯中质油价格会跌至每桶50美元,这将促使产油国减产。”
established
It is said in the report that the three major industries that graduates expected to work for are it/internet/telecommunications/electronics industry, financial industry/ banking/investment/fund/securities/insurance, government/public service/non-profit-making institutions.

LED照明“大规模定制化” 将突破产业亏损困境

References

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